Cinnamomum zeylanicum (also called verum): family Laureacae
Plant Origin: Madagascar
Method: Steam distilled from bark
Cultivation: Unsprayed (grown organically but not certified)
Chemical Family: Aldehydes/Phenols
Aroma: Powerful, warm-spicy, sweet, richer aroma than ground cinnamon,
Note (Evaporation Rate): Base
Actual Key Constituents Lot #CNB-103
Cinnamaldehyde <E> 44.08%
Cinnamyl acetate 11.29%
cymene <para> 3.29%
Caryophyllene <trans> 7.33%
Terpineol <alpha> 0.80%
Children? Not suitable orally for children under 6 and low risk mucus membrane irritation with inhalation. Strong skin irritant for all ages. Dilute 0.07%.
Pregnancy/Breastfeeding? Not suitable (Tisserand/Young).
Medication/Health Condition? Contraindicated orally: Anticoagulant, Diabetes, Diuretic medication; Childbirth, Major Surgery (one week before and after), Peptic Ulcer, Hemophilia
Cinnamon Bark essential oil may support, aid, ease, soothe, reduce, calm, relax, promote and/or maintain healthy function of the following:
Candida (blended with Lavender)
Cold and flu
Digestion (dyspepsia, gas, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting)
Research and Aromatherapy Literature Notes
Cold air diffusing Cinnamon Bark essential oil showed inhibitory effect against respiratory tract pathogens Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes
and Staphylococcus aureus
, including some penicillin-resistant strains
. [View abstract]
Cinnamon and Clove essential oils showed strong inhibition of bacteria when tested for the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs. The oils were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis
, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
. [View abstract]
Can essential oils ? antibiotics be used together? by Robert Tisserand
Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.
"The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance."
Effects of cinnamaldehyde on the glucose transport activity of GLUT1
Kurt Schnaubelt writes in reference to reading or hearing "dire warnings about the use of Cinnamon and Clove oil, that the 'Never to be used' phrase attached to these two essential oils" is "resoundingly ignored by those who really used essential oils. The antibacterial effects of Cinnamon Bark oil make it one of the best options when a person encounters violent bacterial infections of the intestinal tract, especially while traveling in unfamiliar territory! The choice is between being pointlessly scared by the defensive writing of an author who probably had never been in a comparable situation or effectively ending the debilitating condition with a few drops of Cinnamon oil."
The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils, page 73.
Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt holds a Ph.D. in chemistry and is the founder and scientific director of the Pacific Institute of Aromatherapy. In his book, Medical Aromatherapy: Healing with Essential Oils, he writes that Clove and Cinnamon are "Strong allergenic agents" and that Cinnamon Bark, Cinnamon Leaf, Cassia, Clove Bud and Clove Stem "provoke skin sensitization in approximately 5% of the population when applied topically. These oils are preferably used internally, which is less problematic."
"Today, eugenol, the main constituent of clove oil, and cinnamic aldehyde, the main constituent of cinnamon bark oil, are among the most thoroughly researched components of essential oils. Within modern times, the move toward commercialization has made these two oils almost outcasts in the litmus test of aromatherapy. This may also be a reflection of the predominant use of aromatherapy for massage in Great Britain and the limited usefulness of these oils for topical applications, because they do pose hazards such as dermatitis reactions to those with sensitive skin. Nonetheless, their ability to restore equilibrium to the intestinal flora, to act against pathogens, and to be metabolized by the good bacteria makes them indispensable agents in maintaining balance during an illness. Another reason that these oils are so highly contested may rest in their extreme effectiveness. In casual aromatherapy, it is customary to always use at least a drop or two. Doing so with cinnamon or clove results in too high a concentration. A more accurate evaluation of the qualities of these two oils is given by Dr. Deininger, of Cologne, Germany, who put it this way: “If people in the world knew about all the beneficial properties of cinnamon it would not be available anymore, it would be soaked up from the market in no time.”
"According to the work of Deininger as well as Franchomme and Pénoël, cinnamon bark oil is effective against 98 percent of all pathogenic gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria. It is also effective against yeasts, candida (albicans, tropical, pseudo-tropical) and fungi, including aspergillus, thereby preventing aflatoxin production. It is antiparasitic and prevents fermentation in the intestines; it is effective against diarrhea, colitis, amoebic dysentery, enterotoximia, bacterial cystitis, and urinary tract infections with E. coli and tropical infections accompanied by fever. Caution: potential skin irritant and sensitizing agent. Preferred mode of use: Internally."
"Aromatherapy approach: for the self-medicating individual, determination of the pathogen is often not possible. Cinnamon bark oil can be used alone or in conjunction with oregano oil to take aim at an extremely broad range of pathogenic bacteria. It is well tolerated internally. For bacterial intestinal infections, which can often be identified by their quick and violent onset, oils that often are treacherous to use on the skin such as cinnamon bark and clove are very useful. Their internal application is usually safe and effective, provided they are used in the appropriately small dosage of one drop per application. The best way to ingest these oils is to dilute one drop of the oil into one tablespoon of edible oil (hazelnut or olive) and ingest that mixture in a gelatin capsule."
Schnaubelt writes in The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils: The Science of Advanced Aromatherapy (p. 79) that "It appears that the potential of Clove bud, stem, and leaf as well as Cinnamon bark and leaf oil to create these undesirable effects arises when they come in contact with the skin. However, ingesting a drop of Cinnamon Bark essential oil absorbed on a sugar cube or a similar adsorbent is typically tolerated well by almost everyone. Taking a drop of Cinnamon Bark essential oil in this fashion can be a life safer if you are suffering from tropical infections. Clove essential oil is so powerful that it is treated with utmost respect by everyone who chooses to work with it. If integrated into blends intended for ingestion, 1% of Clove is effective and should probably be an upper limit."
Kurt Schnaubelt, Ph.D wrote that 1 drop in honey can be taken once every 2 hours for acute infection.
The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils, page 133.
(See Essential Oil Usage
for more information and a dilution chart
Topical: Dilute adequately with a carrier oil
and apply as desired. Cinnamon Bark has a high risk for skin irritation and sensitization. To avoid skin irritation/sensitization risk, Tisserand/Young suggest that the maximum dermal use level is 0.07%. This would be about a 1 drop in a 2oz bottle (1 drop in 48mLs to be exact.)
Cinnamon Bark is typically added to other essential oils and diffused. May irritate nasal membranes if inhaled directly from diffuser or bottle.
Cinnamon Bark is suitable for internal use within safe parameters if such use is deemed appropriate. Due to the potential skin irritating properties in Cinnamon Bark, Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt feels the preferred mode of use is internally, ideally taken by capsule diluted with a suitable carrier oil. We feel that internal use is rarely *needed* and should only be used with respect for how concentrated the oils are. HEO does not advocate internal use of essential oils without appropriate knowledge and understanding of how to administer, for what purpose, how much, which essential oils, safety concerns and so on. In our experience, essential oils are generally more effective used topically with proper dilution or inhaled. Kurt Schnaubelt Ph.D. notes that "French aromatherapy literature contains many references to using oils orally." He goes on to note that "generally 1 drop is always enough when ingesting essential oils." A potential toxicity hazard could occur when untrained people use essential oils orally and ingest too much. Keep in mind that while medical doctors or health care practitioners may prescribe essential oils for internal use, they are trained and experienced in the safe application of essential oils. It is not a matter of using "French aromatherapy" or "British" methods, it's a matter of experience and appropriate application.
Maximum adult daily oral dose should not exceed 200mg [0.22mL - about 6 drops].
Click here for more information about internal usage
Kurt Schnaubelt, Ph.D wrote in The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils
(p. 133) that 1 drop in honey can be taken once every 2 hours for acute infection
Robert Tisserand wrote in Essential Oil Safety
(p. 248) that the maximum adult daily oral dose should not exceed .22mL (about 6 drops).
The following anecdotal testimonies have not been reviewed by the FDA.
The products mentioned are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure disease.
Information shared on the HEO website is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice given by your trusted health care provider.
We believe that essential oils are provided by the Lord to support our health and well-being.
The Lord is our wisdom, protector and healer.
(Genesis 1:29-30, Ezekiel 47:12)
1. I give my husband Cinnamon Bark oil orally twice a day, 3-5 drops in a gel capsule to prevent urinary tract infections. - Ami [HEO's comment: See "Internal Use" statement above. Doing this long-term may have adverse effects that have not been studied.]
2. I have a few clients who have severe allergic reactions to cinnamon, but they have no problem with Cinnamon Bark properly diluted in blends. - Elissa
3. I've been using Cinnamon Bark oil internally (2 drops daily) for a year now. It helps me maintain my blood sugar without standard medications. - Tiffaney
Hopewell Essential Oil blends with Cinnamon Bark
Children: Not for children orally six years old or under, and use with caution and in greater dilution for children older than six (Tisserand/Young p. 652-3).
"Do not expose children of five years or less to strong essential oil vapors" (page 651).
Topical Use: May be sensitizing due to aldehydes. Moderate risk (Tisserand/Young p. 249). Cinnamon Bark has a high risk for skin irritation and sensitization. To avoid skin irritation/sensitization risk, Tisserand/Young suggest that the maximum dermal use level is 0.07%. This would be about a 1 drop in a 2oz bottle (1 drop in 48mLs to be exact.)
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Cinnamon Bark is contraindicated for pregnancy and breastfeeding because when it was fed to pregnant mice for two weeks it significantly reduced the number of nuclei and altered the distribution of embryos according to nucleus number (Tisserand/Young p. 249).
Oral Use Caution: Hemophilia or severe kidney or liver disease. Tisserand/Young (p. 248) wrote that the maximum adult daily oral dose should not exceed 200mg [0.22mL - about 6 drops].
Drug interaction: May inhibit blood clotting. Oral use cautions: diabetes medication, anticoagulant medication, major surgery, peptic ulcer, hemophilia and other bleeding disorders.
From Essential Oil Safety by Tisserand/Young, page 249:
"Cinnamon oil (type not known) caused poisoning after the ingestion of approximately 60mL by a 7-year-old boy who drank the oil when dared to by a friend. Symptoms included a burning sensation in the mouth, chest and stomach, dizziness, double vision and nausea. There was also vomiting and later collapse. The doctors involved considered that had vomiting not occurred the dose could have been fatal, but there were no serious consequences."
Avoid contact with the eyes and other sensitive areas. Essential oils are both lipophilic and hydrophobic. Lipophilic means they are attracted to fat— like the membranes of your eyes and skin. They are also hydrophobic, meaning they do not like water. Applying a carrier oil will create another fat for the essential oil to be attracted to other than the membranes of the eyes or skin. Tisserand suggests: "With essential oils, fatty oil has been suggested as an appropriate first aid treatment, though the advantage of saline [eyewash] is that the eyes can be continually flushed, and this is less easy with fatty oil.” We are not aware of a case where essential oil in the eyes caused permanent injury or long-term discomfort, but if you feel concerned, please call your health care provider.
Battaglia, Salvatore, The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy, 2002, pages 184-185.
Purchon, Nerys; Cantele, Lora, Complete Aromatherapy and Essential Oils, 2016, pages 47-48.
Schnaubelt, Kurt, The Healing Intelligence of Essential Oils, 2111, page 73.
Schnaubelt, Kurt, Medical Aromatherapy: Healing with Essential Oils, 2013
Tisserand, Robert, Essential Oil Safety, 2nd Edition 2014, pages 152-153, 248-249, 652-653.
Wildwood, Chrissie, Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Aromatherapy, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1996, pages 260-261.